The relationships between cultural values and the learning style preferences of students
Let us see what exactly is the difference in the learning styles of students from different cultural groups in terms of a certain number of researchers. L. Zhang investigated cultural differences in cognitive styles in teaching in international schools, watching the students from Northern Europe, North America (USA and Canada), Europe, South and South-East Asia (China, Taiwan) (Zhang, 2002). The author analyzed the processes of perception and processing of information, educational strategies (relying on the theory of Multiple Intelligences H. Gardner), the response to the information and ways of solving problems and introduced the concept of cognitive style of learning.
The cognitive style of learning, according to the definition researcher, involves a process of analysis and knowledge representation. It is understood that the concept of cognitive style is quite closely intertwined with the concept of learning style, which is usually the result of «cognitive style».
Multiple Intelligences H. Gardner
The researcher argues that based on the theory of Multiple Intelligences H. Gardner, that the ability of adults of different cultures represent different combinations of different types of intelligence (Gardner, 1991). Although all normal individuals, in varying degrees, can be all kinds of intelligence, every individual has a unique combination of more and less developed intellectual abilities, which explains individual differences between people.
The author notes that the effectiveness of a didactic model that is based on the theory of multiple intelligences, depends on the cultural and semiotic variation. We, in turn, can assume that the logical-mathematical intelligence will dominate as a component of the Western rationalist approach to information processing (individualistic types of crops); personal and existential intelligences will be the dominant context of information from representatives of cultures collectivist type, and so on.
The main criterion that contributes to cognitive style
The main criterion that contributes to cognitive style, according to some researchers is «field dependence» and «field independence» (Nisbett, 2003). Europeans and Americans are mostly field independent, the majority of Eastern culture are field dependent. During the training representatives of the Asian countries are more sensitive to the needs and reactions of colleagues, show good results, especially when they get positive reinforcement, praise from the teacher.
If we talk about the role of the modalities of perception (by Grinder) (Grinder, John, etc., 1983), the Zhang noted that students from the Nordic combined use learning styles (visual, kinesthetic), prefer verbal and mathematical approaches and classroom training. Students from North America like presentations, role plays, group discussions, which is very typical for the American and Canadian education systems as a whole. American students prefer visual approach with lots of interactive content in the learning process, discussions, allowing to express themselves and to express their own point of view. Students in Southern Europe are remarkable that are very fond of the training cases from real life. Asian students prefer theoretical system, a logical step by step approach.
The dominant visual modality explained at the Asian students belonging to the ideographic language group. Spanish students prefer kinesthetic approach is highly structured material and prefer to cooperate in the solution of educational problems. For blacks characteristic kinesthetic learning style, with lots of practical component. They prefer to work together with the teachers, field dependence. Most blacks are mainly used analytical style, while as Hispanics prefer the synergistic style.
representatives poliactive type of culture
They are representatives poliactive type of culture can be engaged at the same time a few things and miss, when a long time to do one thing. As for the study of learning styles of students in Asian (Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean and Filippins), it may be noted that all the representatives of these cultural groups to motivate group training. 86 percent of Chinese students prefer to «organize» the formal (routine) learning style, as opposed to the flexible style of teaching in a game format. A. Sharma investigated the learning style of Indian students and identified the following patterns (Sharma, 2009).
For members of individualist cultures are characterized by high power distance, pressure, social conformity, a high index of collectivism and others. Stipulate the specifics of learning style preferences. As for the specifics of the information, we can mention the fact that they feel more comfortable in the format of «recipient of knowledge» rather than «pioneers.» As in China, in India, a teacher — a figure enjoying unquestioning respect. Indian students are quite adaptable, have strong visual preference to work with educational material, information is processed sequentially prefer logic and clear structure, like the facts. The training is dominated by an inductive style of work with the information.
They like to work in a team and solving group problems. With regard to decision-making, it should be noted reflexive way of thinking, a tendency to the analytical style (shown good results in the exact sciences), the lack of a bright pronounced propensity for innovation and creativity. Indian students mainly pragmatic: take decisions on the basis of objectivity, utility, functionality.