G. Hofstede Psychological Model

This  classification belongs to G. Hofstede. He made the model with a classification using parameters which determine the specific nature of communication in other words psychological component of human behavior:

• Individualism/collectivism index

High individualism index (Australia, Canada, England, France, Italy, Sweden and the USA) means concentration of the individual on himself/herself and his/her interests. High collectivism index (Greece, Russia, CIS countries, Japan, Mexico, Singapore and Venezuela) vice-versa denotes abidance of the individual to group.

• Power distance index

Power distance is a status dividing among members of society residing at different stages of social ladder. This index measures tolerance of the social medium to the social inequality between superior and lower individuals. Long power distance presents in such countries as Russia, France, Greece, Mexico, Singapore and Venezuela. Short power distance presents in England, Australia, Sweden and the USA. In Canada, Italy and Japan the power distance is medium.

• Uncertainty avoidance index

This index characterizes the risk aversion degree or the pursuance of it in other words tolerance and readiness of society to uncertainty in situation and also their stress resistance. High uncertainty avoidance index is in Russia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico and Venezuela in contrast with Canada, Singapore, Sweden and the USA.

• Male and female style of business relations

Male type of behavior is characterized by keen competition, exactingness and pursuance of achievements. Vivid expression of manliness is peculiar to Russia, Australia, England, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the USA and Venezuela. These countries are characterized by the pursuance of gain, money accumulation and neglect of people around. France, Singapore and Sweden as representatives of female type dominant vice versa are characterized by empathy, modesty, importance of emotional comfort and altruism. Work which gives an opportunity to be acknowledged or to succeed in life is highly prized in countries with the male type. Presence of pleasant society and mutual help at work are more important in countries with the female type.

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